What Is Gap Insurance? Who Needs It And Who Does Not? - A Graphical Interpretation

by golbguru on August 3, 2007

I have had many questions on the issue of gap insurance in the past and never really found a satisfactory answer. The most common answer to the question: “What is gap insurance?” - something that a car salesman or a website will give you - is this:

Gap insurance closes the gap between what your auto insurance company thinks your car is worth (if your car is stolen or totaled) and what you owe the finance company.

Now, technically, that is a correct definition, but it doesn’t really help you visualize the concept very well. Plus, such a definition doesn’t help in answering any other related questions on gap insurance; for example, “Do you need gap insurance on used cars?”, “Do you need gap insurance on leased cars?”, “In what other situations is this insurance not necessary?”, etc.

In this post, we will try to visualize the idea of gap insurance with the help of some graphs, and then try to extend it to various situations to address other commonly asked questions about gap insurance.

  • What exactly is the “gap”? and why does this gap needs to be insured?

Let us follow a hypothetical purchase of a 2007 Buick Terraza, one of the worst depreciating vehicles out there. The high depreciation of this vehicle will allow us to see the “gap” clearly. Here is how the value of this vehicle depriciates over time (data from Edmunds.com):

depreciation table for buick terraza

The values in the table above are what insurance companies are going to follow for a *regular* insurance. So, if you total the car within a few days after driving it off the dealer’s lot, you will get only about $24,190 from the insurance company. If you total it after Year 1, you will get $19,860 and so on.

Now, let us assume that you financed this vehicle with $0 down and 6% APR auto loan for 60 months. Your monthly payments (according to Bankrate.com) will be $623.54. Based, on this monthly payment, and accounting for the interest per year, here is how the amount you owe the financing company will look like:

amount owed each year

Now, let us plot these values together to get the following graph and observe how the gap looks like.

the definition of

The shaded portion is the “gap” in the term “gap insurance”. This is the gap that needs to be insured. For example, if you total your Buick Terraza after the 1st year, your regular insurance will give you only $19,860, whereas, your financing company will ask you to shell out $26,551 to clear off your debt. There is a gap of $6,691 between these to figures and you need gap insurance if you don’t want to pay this gap amount.

  • How does the gap look when you lease a vehicle?

You saw above that financing the car (at 6% APR) created a gap of $6,691 after the first year. Instead, if you had leased the vehicle, for say 60 months (usually, it’s less than 60 months, but this will help us understand it better) , your monthly payments would have been much lower (probably around $350 ?) - which means that you would have owed more (than the financing option) after the first year, and therefore the gap would have been larger. This is shown in the graph below.

gap insurance in leasing

Also you can see that the gap exists for the entire period of the lease. That’s why you MUST have gap insurance at all times when you are leasing a vehicle.

Another point to note is that the *residual value* as defined by most leases is usually higher than the actual depreciated value of the vehicle. This will be the case, whatever the length of your lease is. This means the gap will ALWAYS exist for a leased vehicle.

  • Do you need gap insurance if you are financing a used vehicle?

From the above graphs, it is obvious that the gap is maximum when you just drive off a dealer’s lot with a brand new vehicle and then it gradually decreases over time. It eventually goes to zero within a few years (3 years in the above example).

Generally, gap insurance won’t be offered on used vehicle at all; but just in case it is being offered (people can offer you anything to extract money from you), you won’t really need it for vehicles that are more than a few (2 ~ 3) years old. Depreciation slows down after the first year, and in all probability, for a vehicle that is about 3 years old, your monthly payments will be more than the loss in the vehicle’s value. So, you will never hit a point where you owe more than the value of your vehicle (or more than what your regular insurance will pay you).

The only exception to this is when you have been sold a used vehicle for a price that’s way above it’s depreciated value (not a good deal to begin with) - and you completely financed it without any down payment. At that time, for a brief initial period, you will be owing more than the value of the vehicle.

  • Are there any cases in which you may not require gap insurance EVEN if you finance a new vehicle?

Yes. Depending on the term of you car loan and your initial down payment, it is possible that you may not require the gap insurance on a financed new vehicle. Let’s discuss two simple cases below.

  • Case 1: You make a large down payment. For the example above, suppose you made a 25% down payment and availed an auto loan for just $24,190. You are essentially taking care of most of the initial depreciation. In this case, you will probably never owe more than what your regular insurance will give you if you total your car. This is shown in the graph below.

large down payment on gap insurance

  • Case 2: You make a small down payment and your loan term is very short. In this case, the gap is small and is very rapidly reducing towards zero. You will be taking some amount of risk, but it will be a very short term risk. For our example of the Buick Terraza, this is shown in the graph below for a 10% down payment and a 24 month loan term. The gap reduces to zero in less than six months.

short term loan with small down payment

  • Do you need gap insurance if you buy a vehicle using cash?

It is important to note that the gap is essentially defined ONLY if you are financing (or leasing) a vehicle. If you are using cash, you don’t owe anything to anyone, and there is no gap and hence, gap insurance doesn’t hold any meaning. This is how the graph looks like when you pay cash for a new vehicle:

gap insurance not required for cash purchase

What other things should you look out for when choosing a gap insurance?

  • First issue - you don’t really need gap insurance for very long periods of time if you are financing your vehicle. It depends on your loan terms and conditions. In the above example, you need gap insurance for only about 3 years. If your loan period is longer (72 months or 84 months), or if you are buying a vehicle that’s worse in terms of depreciation, then you may probably need a slightly longer coverage. So keep that in mind before you jump for the longest coverage.
  • Second important issue - watch out for the deductible. If the gap insurance has very high deductible, then it essentially defeats it’s own purpose. The purpose is to protect you from shelling out a large sum of money for a car that has been totaled (or stolen) ~ so that you would have enough cash in hand to arrange for an alternate vehicle if you need one. High deductible defeats this protection. Plus, sometimes (in case of cars that depreciate very slowly) the cost of the gap insurance and the deductible together might be greater than the gap itself. Beware of such situations.
  • Of course, before you buy a separate gap coverage, you also need to make sure that it is not covered by your existing insurance company and/or included in the lease payments itself.

Hopefully, things are clearer by now. :) Remember, we followed one specific example (2007 Buick Terraza) for this post; the numbers will be different for different cars, car loans, and leases, but the general concept will be the same.

Feel free to suggest additions/modifications to this write-up. If you like it so far, make sure to bookmark this post so that you can explain the concept to your friend who is all eager to buy gap insurance for a 6 year old Toyota Avalon. :)

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{ 60 comments… read them below or add one }

1 TFB 08.03.07 at 4:29 am

The simplest solution is just pay cash for the vehicle you have cash for, used or new. Save the headache learning about all this.

2 Pinyo 08.03.07 at 4:54 am

Wow. I must say that this is the best illustrative explanation of Gap Insurance I have seen to date. This is really good work.

@TFB - not everyone can afford to pay new car with cash. I certainly wouldn’t be able to.

I think a better, more financially sounds, solution is to buy used car because cars lose a huge chunk of their value in the first 2 years.

I think I read this in the Millionaire Next Door about someone who decide to buy used Mercedez, to paraphrase: Is the pride of owning a brand new Mercedez worth $20,000?

3 RateLadder 08.03.07 at 7:34 am

Very well done. Clear as a bell now.
I particularly like the lease example.

There are reasons why leasing is better than buying in corporate situations and high turnover situations.

4 Steve Austin 08.03.07 at 8:34 am

I agree w/ TFB, this is more brainjuice than I would ever blow on a vehicle, though I’d never buy a new car. Only insure barebones liability. Self-insure for car value. Never buy newer than 3 to 5 years, and always pay in full. If you don’t have the money, save it and ride trains, buses, and bikes until then. Use ZipCar or Flexcar if in a pinch for a car. When I hear “gap insurance” all I can think of is “cross- or up-sell”.

5 Brad 08.03.07 at 10:00 am

Another option for avoiding gap insurance is to buy a car that DOESN’T lose 25% of its value instantly as you drive it off the lot. Hondas and Toyotas do not lose their value nearly that quickly.

The trade-in value for my 2005 Honda is still above 75% of what I paid for it (75.5%, to be exact– that’s the average of KBB, Edmunds, and NADA). I got a good deal at the end of 2005 on this car (slightly below invoice), but I did buy it new and such deals can be had at certain times of the year.

Had I bought a Ford, GM, or Chrysler it would be worth much, much less. Buy a vehicle that is reliable and holds value long-term, and forget the whole concept of Gap Insurance.

6 golbguru 08.03.07 at 10:40 am

TFB: “Save the headache learning about all this.” Whether an option is applicable to you or not, it’s always good to “know” about things. Well-informed conclusions can’t be drawn when learning about concepts becomes a headache. :)

Pinyo: “I think a better, more financially sounds, solution is to buy used car because cars lose a huge chunk of their value in the first 2 years.” - that is true. Although new cars have their own advantages, a *good* used late model car is a better choice.

Steve Austin
: It’s not rocket science :) It will take you less than 10 minutes to completely understand this concept. Then, whether you make use of it for yourself is a different matter. May be you can save a friend a few hundred bucks someday.. who knows. ;)

Brad: Excellent point. New vehicles with very low depreciation are good choices ~ and it’s possible that some of them won’t require gap insurance at all.

Again, don’t “forget the whole concept of gap insurance” ~ store it somewhere in the back of your mind, apply as necessary, there is no expiry date on this possession. ;)

7 Brad 08.03.07 at 11:14 am

I think every new car has a gap at first if you finance it fully. With Hondas and Toyotas that gap is closed in a matter of a few months’ payments. With other cars, like the one in your example, it could be 3 years before the gap is closed.

Okay, okay, so don’t FORGET the concept. :-) Just buy smart so you can avoid paying extra– because with cars like the Buick Terraza, you lose out both on the depreciation AND by having to pay for additional gap insurance. We make investments looking to get the best returns so that we have the most cash in the end; why do so many people refuse to think this way when they are buying cars?

8 golbguru 08.03.07 at 11:26 am

Brad: “..why do so many people refuse to think this way when they are buying cars?” - interesting question. A part of the answer *may* be “emotions”; I have experienced it first hand during my recent experience (however, I think I will be wiser with my next purchase). People probably let emotions take over the brain, and many of them get *overwhelmed* with all the goodies inside the car, power (which is usually not necessary), the nice clean engine, and of course, the smooth-talking salesman… stuff like that. And, they want to make a decision “right now” without thinking over it. :)

May be many people just don’t know better, and don’t care to find out ~ and probably won’t know their car’s depreciation till they are in the market to sell it away.

9 Brad 08.03.07 at 11:37 am

I certainly made a mistake when I bought my car; not on the deal itself, which was a great find on a great car with great resale value, but on deciding I needed a big honkin’ SUV to begin with. I should have kept my old car longer and then gone for another CAR when the time came, preferably slightly used. I thought since I did so much work around the house that I really needed the cargo room, but I vastly overestimated how often I would use that convenience. It was a mistake made because, like you said, emotion got the better of logic.

But the one thing I never lost sight of was the real cost of buying, because I had a very good idea of how much the car would be worth down the road. It’s pretty simple to do that research these days, but most people don’t seem to be interested.

I read recently that the Big 3 fell below 50% of US auto sales for the first time in history. If people bought based on value, their market share would approach zero. It may be headed that way anyway.

10 Robert 08.03.07 at 2:25 pm

Boy this one caught my attention! I used to work for the largest supplier of gap insurance in the U.S. They offer it as a product for the finance department of the auto dealer (along with many other products) and it is a big revenue generator for them.

Like a lot of insurance, they tend to play on the scare factor of the customer when offering it “If you total your car in a month you will have to pay the difference between the loan and the value of the car”.

This isn’t to say that gap insurance is a bad idea, especially if you are accident prone :) To make it worse, they just add the premium into the car payment so you don’t realize what you are actually paying.

I remember when I bought my last car and I sat in the finance guy’s office and he started listing all these extra products. I smiled and said “look, I work for … and I don’t want anything”. He kind of stared at me for a minute and smiled back and that was the end of it. They are pretty much required to offer all these products because they make money for the dealership, and it is a rapidly growing revenue stream for them.

As I recall there are about a half dozen different products that the dealership will offer you when go to sign the paperwork. Again, these are not inheritanly ‘bad’ or scams. Just make sure you know what you are buying before you sign anything. Don’t let the “it only increases your payment by $X” talk you into it.

As mentioned, you should also understand how your vehicle of choice depreciates over time. Not just to know whether you need something like gap insurance but also so you will know how much you are paying vs. the value of your vehicle.

Very nice research!

11 kitty 08.03.07 at 3:58 pm

One thing that I’d like to add is that the amount that an insurance company actually pays for a totalled car is not a trade-in value but the estimated replacement value for an equivalent car + taxes - deductible. This is a much higher number. They don’t factor in bargaining.

In 2006, I totalled my 2003 Toyota Corolla - bought new at the end of 2002 for $16,300 (out the door - taxes included). The check I got from my insurance company for this car was for $13,359: $12,675 (value)+$934(taxes) - 250 (deductible). I imagine if I had a loan, it would’ve more than covered it.

As the representative explained it to me, he looked at MSRP for comparative cars as well as sticker price in some local dealerships, added for low mileage (30K), and non-standard options (e.g. ABS). If my car had some problems he’d substracted it.

12 pointyou.com 08.04.07 at 6:38 am

Wow, this is good work. Great post. I really enjoy your writing. By the way, I run an Auto Insurance Article Directory and if you have some articles for distribution, you are very welcome to post them.

13 Super Saver 08.04.07 at 2:51 pm

Golbguru,

Personally, I would self insure the gap part. It would be similar to having a large deductible. :-)

I haven’t looked up the statistics, but I believe the percentage of cars totalled is not that high. Of all my friends and colleagues, I only know of one person who totalled his car, a 12 year old luxury sedan.

14 golbguru 08.04.07 at 4:49 pm

Kitty: “One thing that I’d like to add is that the amount that an insurance company actually pays for a totalled car is not a trade-in value but the estimated replacement value for an equivalent car + taxes - deductible.” - That is true, and the values I have taken for consideration are somewhat close to private party resale values of the car. I think for the Corolla (or any other car that depreciates very slowly), you would be in good shape. Essentially, within a few months, you would be paying more in your monthly payments than the depreciation of the car, and that’s why you would get back an amount that would more than cover any outstanding loan on the car. Hope I am explaining it properly.

Robert
: “He kind of stared at me for a minute and smiled back and that was the end of it.” - Lol!.. when we bought our car a couple of weeks ago, we did something similar (except that we just gave some “being-students-can’t afford-a-penny-more” crap) and got almost a similar reaction from the finance manager. :)

Super Saver: Thing about insurance is that you never need it … unless you really need it. :) On those lines, but slightly offtrack, I have never been to a doctor for any problems (except for vision check) in the last 4 years… but I still carry a solid health insurance - again with the same logic - I probably won’t ever need it .. unless I really need it. :)

15 ispf 08.04.07 at 9:26 pm

I am now in the market for a car and found this article very helpful. Golb, you really have a gift for explaining things in a way that they become easy to understand. I sure hope you will choose to become a prof when you graduate! :)

16 John 08.05.07 at 12:53 pm

This was a really good article. While I was aware of the concept; I really liked the various scenarios and the accompanying graphs

17 Used vans girl 08.06.07 at 6:24 am

I wonder how may people get caught out each year from a lack of knowledge. When was the last time you bought a car and the salesman (woman) or insurance policy advisor explained to you about gap insurance, NEVER! It’s something most people will learn about the hard way unfortunately. Great post and explained very well.

18 Kooljay2 02.22.08 at 3:28 am

The problem, as it is with many insurance products (as Robert stated) is the companies play the “scare” game and paint worst-case scenarios to make you think you MUST have protection. What are the facts about totalled cars? How often does the scenario actually happen where a car is totalled within the first three years of life? I for one do not know a single person that has ever had that experience. To be clear: that is NOT to say it doesn’t happen, or that the stories from people in that situation are fake. I am only questioning how often it occurs, and if it occurs often enough that we should spend money insuring against something that the odds say probably won’t happen. If the facts say it happens 5% of the time, then it’s not a good idea to spend money trying to avoid the situation.

I used to sell life insurance. One of the big money makers was something called double indemnity insurance. On a typical policy, you could attach it “for a small extra fee”. In case your death was the result of an accident, your family would receive double the amount of the policy. Sounds good, but the FACT is most people do not die as a result of an accident, so millions and millions of people were paying money for a benefit they would never use. Is gap insurance on an auto the same thing? My gut says yes it is, because I have a very dim view of insurance companies and how they “claim” to look out for the consumer.

What are the facts? How often do cars get totalled within 3 years of their life span? Don’t try to scare me with worst case scenarios, give me the facts so I can make an intelligent decision.

19 Katie 06.14.08 at 3:10 pm

I had a car totalled this week and it is 2.5 years old so yes it does happen. My insurance is paying the car off.The car was originally around 15,000 new. Car loan is at 11,000 still and the car value is 9700 that my insurance is paying. It’s not a huge gap but it’s still there. I put around 2500 on the car as a down payment. Gap coverage is getting the rest and I’m planning to buy an older car and rely primarily on public transit and my bicycle until the insurance rates from my accident lower.

20 CmarterVoice 06.04.09 at 10:17 am

Thank you! This is great info! Because of an accident, we had to purchase a car. Brad is correct about “emotions” playing a role in decision making. After hours of finally “making a deal” with a salesman, you are exhausted then comes the paperwork with financing being the last step. They throw this in and since you’ve experienced a “loss” from an accident, it sounds great and it actually is a nice “extra” cushion for purchases like the Buick example you gave above. If we were financing the total purchase amount, I’d probably go for it. Factoring in the down payment, the miles on the car and the odds of another “totaled” accident within a 60-month loan period does make you feel like you’re gambling on “what ifs.” For this particular purchase, I have been questioning the gap since returning from the dealership. Based on your illustrations, I think the cons outweigh the pros.

21 shashi 06.28.09 at 7:20 am

Hi I have a 2009 Corolla LE got for a finance 0f $19000 I have take an GAP by paying extra $600, My question is should I make a payment of $600 every year or is it one time payment. My 2nd Question can i revoke it after 2 years if I have made no claim on it.

Regards
Shashi

22 Mr. S 12.19.09 at 11:32 am

I got caught in the gap last week. Crashed a car @36 miles an hour in an intersection, and insurance totaled the car. I’d had the car (a 2004) for 20 months. I owed 9500 on it. The insurance paid out 7500. With my 500 deductable, I’m out 2500 bucks. I can afford to eat the 2500, but will also need to come up with a downpayment on another car, so I’m probably out more like 4k. If I had to do over, I’d have looked for gap insurance. This is my first accident in 20 years.

23 Jillian 06.27.10 at 8:01 pm

Thanks for the information. This is very informative. Some car insurance has the scheme where you have to pay for the insurance for gap. This is also good in other way. The deductible is also included in the insurance and has such schemes where you can insure your car for few days or for weekends. This will also help in saving money on car insurance. carinsuretemporary.co.uk

24 Jenn 07.13.10 at 1:16 pm

I am not familiar with Gap Insurance and my husband purchased it with a car we recently bought. It is used and now we no longer wish to keep the car because our circumstances has changed. If we trade it in, we will lose money because we owe more than the car is worth still. Will Gap Insurance cover that gap between what we owe and what the dealership is willing to give us as a trade?

25 jenilia 09.13.12 at 8:51 am

Hi

Great information and nice tips about gap insurance, thanks for your sharing, have a nice day

26 Estate Agents in Enfield 09.16.12 at 10:46 pm

total buying price is reduceing 25% instantaneously,and total financial amount also decreased

27 joe leonhart 09.19.12 at 9:48 am

I think you have the gap recommendation wrong for car leases. You finance the projected depreciation & not the car value, but you insure the car value. Seems to me that the depreciated car value should always exceed the remaining depreciation financed.

28 Estate Agents in Enfield 10.19.12 at 7:19 am

an exact explanation about gap and nature of graph is really understable

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